Man Proposes, God Disposes

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Friday, June 1, 2012


A.    Interjection
1.      Definition of Interjection
An interjection is a word which expresses some suddenly feeling or emotion
2.      Interjection is used
An interjection is used to express some sudden feeling or emotion. It will be noticed that they are not grammatically related to the other words in a sentence. They are, as Hello!, Alas! Hurrah!,  Ah!,  Oh!, hush! Etc.
3.      Examine the following sentences:
a.       Hello! What are you doing there?
b.      Alas! He is dead
c.       Hurrah! We Have won the game
d.      Ah! Have they gone?
e.       Oh! I got such a fright
f.       Hush! Don’t make a noise
B.     Conjunction
1.      Definition of Conjunction
Conjunction is a word which joins together sentences or words and clauses is known as conjunctions
2.      Kinds of conjunctions
Conjunction are divided into four kinds, namely:
a.      Correlative conjunctions
Conjunctions which are used in pairs are known as correlation conjunctions
(a)    Either __ or
Madhavi is either a typist or a teacher
(b)   Neither __ nor
She can speak neither English nor Hindi
(c)    Both __ and
He is both handsome and clever
(d)   Though __ yet
Though he tried to Convince his wife, yet she was not happy with his words
(e)    Whether __ or
I don’t know whether she will marry him or continue her studies
(f)    Not only __ but also
He not only wrote the song but also sang it well
(g)   Such __ as
I read such books as increase my knowledge
(h)   As __ As
Vijaya is as beautiful as her sister
(i)     Hardly __ when
I had hardly reached home when the phone began raining
(j)     Scarely __ when
She had scarcely returned home when some one knocked at the door
(k)   No sooner __ than
We had no sooner started for Hyderabad than our uncle arrived.
b.      Compound Conjunctions
Group of words which are used as conjunctions are known as compound conjunctions
a.       In order that
He applied for a job in order that he might help his father
b.      On condition that
I can lend you that money on condition that you return it in a month
c.       Even if
Even if she is beautiful, I wont marry her
d.      So that
He saved some money, so that he might use it in future
e.       Provide that
I shall give you the job provide that you must know typing
f.       As though
She appears as though she were a film star
g.      As well as
Madhavi as well as her friend is beautiful
h.      As soon as
As soon as I saw madhavi, I fell in love with her
i.        As if
He spends as if he were a richman
c.       Coordinating Conjunction
Conjunction which are used to join together clauses of equal rank are known as Co-ordinating Conjunctions
a)      and
She spoke impressively at the meeting and won the appreciation of all
b)      But
I offered to help her but she refused my help
c)      For
I must try hard for there is heavy competition
d)     Nor
He is not my friend nor my relative
e)      Or
You must begin the work today or you will not finish it in time
f)       Either – or
You must either take up this job or continue you studies.
g)      Neither – nor
-          He neither helped his father nor loved him
Co-ordinating Conjunctions are divided into four kinds, namely:
1.      Cumulative or copulative conjunctions
Conjunctions which are used to join statements are known as cumulative conjunctions
a.       Not only-but also
They not only invited me to dinner but also sent a car for me
2.      Adversative conjunctions
Conjunctions which are used to express a contrast between two statements are known as adversative conjunctions.
a.       Still
You are intelligent still you have to work hard
3.      Disjunctive or alternative conjunctions
Conjunctions which are used to express a choice between two alternatives are known as disjunctive or alternative conjunctions
a.       Else
You must do the work sincerely else you will lose the job.
4.      Illative Conjunctions:
Conjunctions which are used to express an inference are known as illative conjunctions
a.       Therefore
-          He is my enemy therefore I dislike him
d.      Subordinating Conjunctions
Conjunctions which are used to join clauses of unequal rank are known as subordinating conjunctions.
a.       After
He came after I had finished my work
b.      because
She was sad because she last her job
c.       if
if she loves me, I will be happy
d.      That
We believe that Dakshina Murty is a genius
e.       Though
Though he is your brother, you should not trouble him like that
f.       Although
Although you are rich, you cannot do everything
g.      Till
I waited till Madhavi came
h.      Before
The plane had been hijacked before it arrived at London airport.
i.        Unless
Unless I marry madhavi, I will not be happy
j.        As
Do as I tell you
k.      When
She came when I was reading a novel
l.        Where
Please stay where you are
m.    While
She is watching TV while I am reading
n.      Than
She wrote the exam better than I expected
            Subordinating Conjunctions are divided into seven Classes
1)      Time
Before       : Madhavi had gone before I spoke to her
After         : I began my work after they had gone
Till             ; I will wait for you till you return
Since         : I haven’t seen Padma since she was married
When         : I shall be happy when Madhavi is with me
While         : She was speaking with her friends while I was trying to sleep
2)      Cause or Reason
Because     : I was upset very much because Madhavi was angry with me
Since         : since it is dark, take the torch with you
As              : as she is my sister, I like her
3)      Purpose
That           : we eat that we may live
Last he should       : he walked quietly last he should disturb his mother
4)      Result or Consequence
So              : He talked so fast that I could not understand his words
5)      Condition
If               : if she comes here, I shall talk to her
Unless       : unless you ask me, I can’t teach you
Provided   : you can take the book provide you return it by tomorrow
6)      Concession
Ex. Although        : although he has a lot of money, ho does not spend it
However               : however hard he tried, he failed the exam
7)      Comparison
Than          : she respected me more than I thought
As              : Madhavi walks as beautifully as a film star
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