SEMANTIC AND PRAGMATC


SEMANTIC AND PRAGMATC
  1. Sentence
Sentence is a grammatical unit of one or more words, bearing minimal semantic relation to the words that precede or follow it. Often precede and followed in speech by pauses. Having one of a small number of characteristic intonation pattern, and typically expressing an independent statement, question, request, command, etc.

            In other hand said that sentence is a group of words that make complete sense. Sentence is also a group of words that used to communicate the ideas in writing or in speech. Sentence is complete independent unit of thought and consist of two main parts : a subject and a predicate. The subject is the word or words that names person, thing or place that sentences is about . the subject is usually noun or pronoun. The predicate makes a statement about the subject.
            The predicate makes a statement about the subject. It consist of a verb and its modifier or complements. Complement is a word or words that used to complete the meaning of the verb. So the elements of sentence is can be subject (S), verb (V), object (O), or complement can be adverb (adv) or adjective (adj). look the example :
  1. Baby cries ( S V)
  2. Lucky plays basketball ( S V O )
  3. Tia goes there ( S V C )
  4. Putra is clever ( S V C )
  5. I went to market yesterday ( S V O Adv )
Basically, the sentences can be distinguished into four kinds; they are  :
  1. Simple sentences
  2. Compound sentence
  3. Complex sentence
  4. Compound complex sentence
Based on the intonation, meaning and the use of sentence the sentence can also be divided into five kinds ;
  1. Affirmative
  2. Negative sentence
  3. Interrogative sentence
  4. Imperative sentence
  5. Exclamatory sentence

  1. Sense
The interceptive sense is a faculty by which outside stimuli are perceived. The traditional five sense are sight, hearing, touch, smell, taste : a classification attributed to Aristotle different senses also exist in other organism, for example electroreception.
            A broadly acceptable definition of a sense would be : “a system that consist of a group sensory cell type that responds to a specific physical phenomenon, and that correspond to a particular group of regions within the brain where the signal are received and interpreted”. Disputes about the number of senses. Arise typically regarding the classification of the various cell types and their mapping to regions of the brain
  1. Sight or vision is the ability of the brain and eye to detect electromagnetic waves within the visible range (Light) interpreting the image as “sight”
  2. Hearing or audition is the sense of sound perception. Since sound is vibrations propagating through a medium such as air, the detection of these vibrations.
  3. Taste or gestation is one of the two main “Chemical” sense.
  4. Smell or olfaction is the other :chemical”
  5. Touch is also called tactition is the sense of pressure perception, generally in the skin.
            Sense can be divided into two areas : speaker sense and linguistic sense. Speaker sense is the speaker’s intention in producing some linguistic expression. For example : if I utter the sentence Fred is a real genius sarcastically, then the speaker sense of the sentence might be “Fred is below average in intelligence”
            Linguistic sense is the meaning of a linguistic expression as part of a language. For example, if the sentence Fred is a real genius means literally something like ‘Fred has a truly superior intellect’ then the linguistic sense, in contrast to speaker sense, is within the domain of semantics, since it deals solely with literal meaning and is independent of speaker, hearer and situational context.
  1. Utterance
An utterance is a complete unit of speech in spoken language. It is generally but not always bounded by silence.
            It can be represented and delineated in written language in many ways. Note that utterances do not exist in written language, only their representation do. Speech act is a technical term in linguistic and the philosophy of language. Precise conceptions vary, but very roughly any meaningful utterance counts as a speech act.
e.g. Direct and speech
He says “I will go to Medan”.
  1. Preposition
A preposition is that part of the meaning of clause or sentence that is constant; despite changes in such things as the voice or illocutionary force of the clause. A preposition may be related to other units of its kind through inter preposition relations, such as temporal relations and logical relations.
            The meaning of the term preposition is extended by some analysis to include the meaning content of units within the clause.
Example : The tall, stately building, fell is said to express preposition corresponding to the following :
-          The building is tall
-          The building is stately
-          The building fell.
The common content of each on the following utterances is a preposition :
-          Andi ate banana
-          The banana was eaten by Andi
-          Did Andi eat the banana?
-          Andi eat the banana.
-          All these utterance may be analyzed as consisting of a predicate naming an event or state and one or more arguments naming referents that participation is that event or state.
-          The activity is eat
-          The agent is Andi
-          The patient is a banana.

  1. Metafunction  
Metafunction of language is mean as language function in using language by native speaker. In each interaction between user of language and native using language to explain ; vary and attach or organize the experience. With the third function of language in human lifes, language often we called have three function in communication, that are explain vary and attachor the experience in each techniques, called ideational function, interpersonal function and textual function (Hallday, 1994, xiii, Eggins, 1994, 3) with the third function, language mean to bring three meanings, that are experience meaning (ideational meaning) the meaning between personal or the vary meaning (interpersonal meaning) and attach or organization (textual meaning)
            Metafunction (discourse Analysis)
  1. Ideational function
a.       experiental meaning
b.      logical function
  1. Interpersonal Function
  2. Textual Function.
  1. Experiental Function
Experiental function is language or clause as represential experience. The Elements are :
1)      Process is doing by word verbal (kata kerja)
-          Material is doing by fisik
-          Mental is doing by thinking or feeling : cannot Ving
-          Relational is divide into three that is identifying, attributive and possessive
-          Verbal is process of saying
-          Behavioral
-          Existensial is usually using that or process of existent.
2)      Participant is talked by process
3)      Circimtances
a.       Extent is sign of location and temporal as how far and how long
b.      Spatial is sign of where and when
c.       Manner : How
d.      Accompeniement : with when
e.       Contingency : in what circumstance
f.       Role : as what
g.      Cause : why
h.      Matter : about what
i.        Angel : based on whom ? what?




  1. Interpersonal Function
Interpersonal Function is clause as a unit of exchange. Speech function divide into two that is ;
  1. declarative is to offer
  2. Interrogative is to imperative
Locutinary divide into two that is ;
a.       Statement
b.      Question is to command
e.g.
v  He goes (Statement Declarative)
v  He doesn’t go (S. D)
v  Does he go (Question imperative)
v  Go (causative imperative)
v  I have you go (statement imperative)
v  You can go (C. O)
The element of interpersonal
a.       Mood as subject and finite
b.      Residu as predicator, complement and adjunct
For example for statement declarative :
John
loves
the Lady
so much
Part I Sensor
Process Mental
Part II Phenomenon
Circumtance manner
Subject
Does
Love
Complement
Adjunct
Finite
Predicator
Mood
Residu








Offer interrogative
[You]
Don’t Let
me
down
Part I
Sensor
Pro
Part II Phenomenon
cess
                         Men
tal

Finite
Pre
dicator

Mood
Residu


  1. Textual Function
Textual Function is clause as a unit of message organize message, relativance to context (linguistic and social). Clause as a unit of message is continued by theme and rheme
Theme and Rheme
Theme is the starting point of the message and point of departure of the message. Rheme is the test of the message. Theme identifyied by order and marker. The theme is conflated with or mapped on the subject otherwise marked (there must be reason for this).
e.g.
- Meriam picked up the flowers yesterday (unmarked)
- Yesterday Meriam picked up the flowers (Marked)
- The reason comportable with context.

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