Context or Grammatical Clues


  1. Context or Grammatical Clues
In reading a text / an article, or even a book, the students must be know about the clues that involved in the sentences or paragraphs to make them understanding about the text that they read. And this paper, the clues that want to discuss are about context / grammatical clues.

Context clues are the due in the text to help the reader understands the text. There are many types of context clues,[1] such as definition, example, cause and effect, contrast, restatement, and modifier.
  1. Definition
Many times a writer defines a word, directly / indirectly, immediately following its use. The writer of the reading may define a word directly by giving a brief definition or providing a synonym (a word that has the same meaning). The words or phrases that often used in defining are means, is/are, refer to, can be defines, can be called, and called.[2]
Here are some examples ;[3]
Signal Clues
Sample Sentence
Means
A democracy means that all the people from the government.
Is
A protein is a positively changed particle in the nucleus of an atom.
Defines as
The denovement is defined as the climax of a story.
Are
Alginos are an animal (or a person) that is born without any colour.

  1. Example
Example is the clue that help to explain or clarify a word. It is using by “for instance, Such as, for example, like, etc. some etc are once, in one casety, one time.[4] Such in this sentence, students can be divides according to many criteria, for example random sample, ability levels, friendship and interest.”[5]
Look some examples below;[6]
Signal Words
Sample Sentences
Such as
Many animals have mottled coats, such as the leopard, ocelot, and the giraffe.
For instance
Some animals are omnivores. Bears, for instance, eat whatever meat or plants they can find.
Once
He was Zealous. Once, he sat on the courthouse steps for a week to get the city to change a law.

  1. Cause and Effect
The dues that can be used to express cause and effect are because, consequently, so, due to, as a result, as such,  etc. [7] the punction of cause and effect is to explain some connections in a sentence about cause and effect. You can look same examples below.
-          Albinos are very in nature because they usually don’t live very long.
-          Adi Saputra is clever, as such he study hard.
-          Computer is very expensive, So we can’t afford to buy it.[8]
-          They were diligent as a result they passed an English grammar examination.
-          The smash – up was happened in thamrin ,St. It was due to the driver’s careless driving.

  1. Contrast
The writers tell to the reader that the author is switching to a different, opposite, or contrasting idea than previously discussed in a sentence or sentences.[9] The signal that can be used in expressing contrasting are but, although, on the other hand, however, eventhough, yet, etc. The used of the signals can be seen in some sentences :
    • She was quite efficacious in her job. By contrast, her brother wasn’t able to do his work.
    • Her behavior seemes religious, yet  she was sunctimenous.
    • Although I were ill, I went to school. [10]

  1. Restatement
The writer sometimes repeats the unfamiliar word by using some other words that are familiar to the readers. To express restatement the following expressions as signal : or, in other words, that is to say, that is, etc. the marks also can be used to express the restatement, between commas, parentheses, and dashes. [11] look the examples :
    • I have antediluvian car, or ancient car.
    • Most oriented societies valve discipline or self coulud
    • Students memorize information, in other words, they learn and  remember basic rules and facts.
    • The instructions also teach the culture (the ideas and beliefs of society)
    • She used a metronome , a small machine that ticked out the timing of the music,  as she practiced her violin.
    • His simple glance was a harbinger of danger that ia his eyes were signs foretelling bed things about me.


[1] Disadur oleh Eka Sustri Harida, diktat Reading I, (STAIN Padangsidimpuan, Perpustakaan) dari Zainil, Reading Theories, (Padang : Universitas Negeri Padang, 2003) p. 17
[2] Eka Sustri Harida, Diktat Reading I (Padangsidimpuan : Statte Collage for Islamic Studies, 2003-2009). P. 26.
[4] http://www.edu.find.com/english/context/clues/co.id/ Monday, Nov. 2nd/2010/13.42, Padangmatinggi.
[5] Eka Sustri Harida, Op.cit, Page.26
[6] http://edu.wikipedia.client/contextclues/ Monday, November 2 nd, 2010 / 12.50, Padangmatinggi.
[7] Eka Sustri Harida, Op.cit, page. 27
[8] Eka Sustri Harida, log. Cit.
[9] Ibid, page 43.
[10] John M. Echols & Hassan Shadily, Kamus Inggris Indonesia, (Jakarta : PT. Gramedia, 1992), Page. 25
[11] Eka Sustri Harida, loc.cit, page 27

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